Each education service center has designated a contact person to assist districts and campuses with implementing the state law and SBOE rules and procedures regarding dyslexia. In Texas the identification and instruction of students with dyslexia and related disorders is mandated and structured by two statutes and one rule. Texas Education Code (TEC) §38.003 defines dyslexia and related disorders, mandates testing students for dyslexia and providing instruction for students with dyslexia, and gives the State Board of Education authority to adopt rules and standards to administer testing and instruction. Chapter 19 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC) §74.28 outline the responsibilities of districts and charter schools in the delivery of services to students with dyslexia. Finally, §504 of the Rehabilitation Act are implemented when it is determined that dyslexia substantially limits learning.Definition: The student who struggles with reading, writing, and/or spelling often puzzles teachers and parents. The student displays adequate intelligence and receives the same classroom instruction that benefits most children. Still the student struggles with some or all of the many facets of reading, writing and/or spelling. This student may be identified as a student with dyslexia. As defined in TEC §38.003:(1) "Dyslexia" means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.(2) "Related disorders" includes disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such a developmental auditory interception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.Characteristics:The following are the reading/writing/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
- Difficulty reading single words in isolation;
- Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense or unfamiliar words;
- Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (lack of reading fluency); and/or
- Difficulty with learning to spell
The reading/writing/spelling characteristics are the result of:
- Difficulty with the development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words;
- Difficulty learning the names of letters and their associated sounds;
- Difficulty with phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory); and/or
- Difficulty with rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet.
The reading/writing/spelling characteristics of dyslexia lead to:
- Variable degrees of difficulty with word recognition in isolation or in context;
- Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension;
- Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition; and/or
- A limited amount of time spent in reading activities.
International Dyslexia AssociationState Dyslexia ConsultantTexas Dyslexia Identification Academy
The online course for Module 1 may be found on the Texas Gateway website.